An innovative, non-catalytic, thermal partial oxidation (TPOX) based fuel-flexible reformer for use with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) has been developed and demonstrated by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT). Experimental results show that reforming efficiency comparable to that associated with catalytic based reformers can be achieved via effective heat recirculation. Moreover, challenges associated with the use of catalysts for reforming (including poisoning and degradation caused by impurities in military logistic fuels) can be avoided. The non-catalytic reformer is also self-sustained (does not require external energy sources) nor does it involve complicated subsystems. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated by reforming rich propane, n-heptane, and JP-8-air premixtures. Sulfur compounds (H2S, COS, etc.) are removed downstream by a high temperature H2S sorbent that shows very high sulfur removal efficiency at temperatures similar to SOFC working temperatures. This eliminates the need for heat exchangers and therefore further reduces the system size and increases the overall system efficiency. The compactness and simplicity of the non-catalytic reformer and high temperature sorbent reforming system is well-suited for portable fuel cell applications.