The complexity of the current and future security environment will impose new and ever-changing challenges to Warfighter capabilities. Given the critical nature of Soldier cognitive performance in meeting these increased demands, systems should be designed to work in ways that are consistent with human cognitive function. Here, we argue that traditional approaches to understanding the human and cognitive dimensions of systems development cannot always provide an adequate understanding of human cognitive performance. We suggest that integrating neuroscience approaches and knowledge provides unique opportunities for understanding human cognitive function. Such an approach has the potential to enable more effective systems design – that is, neuroergonomic design – and that it is necessary to obtain these understandings within complex, dynamic environments. Ongoing research efforts utilizing large-scale ride motion simulations that allow researchers to systematically constrain environmental complexity are then discussed.