State-of-the-art Diesel engines used for on-highway operation are integrated systems containing multiple subsystems for performance and emissions enhancements. The drive to lower tailpipe emissions on on-highway engines drives system complexity which is both undesired and unnecessary for military ground vehicles. There are, however, on-highway technologies such as high pressure fuel injection systems and advanced turbocharger systems that allow improving the engines’ efficiency and therefore lowering its fuel consumption. The aforementioned technologies are currently available and present possible near term opportunities for military ground vehicles. The adaptation to allow reliable operation in military vehicles will be discussed as part of this near term view. The authors will also discuss the electronic controls architecture requirements that come along with these sophisticated technologies and discuss the advantages and opportunities that present themselves using advanced electronic controls for condition based maintenance and diagnostics.