A retrofittable intelligent vehicle performance and fuel economy maximization system would have widespread application to military tactical and non-tactical ground vehicles as well as commercial vehicles. Barron Associates, Inc. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) recently conducted a research effort in collaboration with the U.S. Army RDECOM to demonstrate the feasibility of a Fuel Usage Monitor and Economizer (FUME) – an open architecture vehicle monitoring and fuel efficiency optimization system. FUME features two primary components: (1) vehicle and engine health monitoring and (2) real-time operational guidance to maximize fuel efficiency and extend equipment life given the current operating conditions. Key underlying FUME technologies include mathematical modeling of dynamic systems, real-time adaptive parameter estimation, model-based diagnostics, and intelligent usage monitoring. The research included demonstration of the underlying FUME technologies applied to a vehicle simulation constructed using SwRI’s RAPTOR™ software toolkit and to LMTV and MRAP vehicle data sets collected under the AMSAA Sample Data Collection (SDC) effort.